BCC lattice cell structural characterization


  • Andrea Alaimo University Kore of Enna, Italy
  • Federico Marino University Kore of Enna, Italy
  • Stefano Valvano University Kore of Enna, Italy




FEM, Lattice, BCC, Struts, Additive


In this work, a numerical characterization of BCC lattice cells is performed through the use of an homogenization approach. The main goal is to establish a relationship among those properties and the relative density of the cubic unit cell. The BCC cell struts diameter are the inputs parameters of the homogenization analysis campaing in order to vary the relative density of the unit cell. A linear periodic condition has been applied to the model in order to simulate a clear probing situation. Traction load tests are used in order to evaluate the Young modulus and the Poisson coefficient, differently a pure shear load case is employed for the evaluation of the shear modulus. Hence the final results will be presented in a graphic visualization.


Aboudi, J., & Gilat, R. (2005). Micromechanical analysis of lattice blocks. International journal of solids and structures 42(15): 4372–4392.

Ashby, M.F. (2006). The properties of foams and lattices. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 364(1838): 15–30.

Bici, M., Brischetto, S., Campana, F., Ferro, C.G., Seclı, C., Varetti, S., Maggiore, P., & Mazza, A. (2018). Development of a multifunctional panel for aerospace use through slm additive manufacturing. Procedia CIRP 67: 215–220.

Bikas, H., Stavropoulos, P., & Chryssolouris, G. (2016). Additive manufacturing methods and modelling approaches: a critical review. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 83(1-4): 389–405.

Deshpande, V.S., Ashby, M.,F., & Fleck, N.A. (2001). Foam topology: bending versus stretching dominated architectures. Acta materialia 49(6): 1035–1040.

Deshpande, V.S., & Fleck, N.A. (2001). Collapse of truss core sandwich beams in 3-point bending. International Journal of Solids and Structures 38(36-37): 6275–6305.

Duan, S., Xi, L., Wen, W., & Fang, D. (2020). Mechanical performance of topology-optimized 3d lattice materials manufactured via selective laser sintering. Composite Structures 238: 111985.

Dumas, M., Terriault, P., & Brailovski, V. (2017). Modelling and characterization of a porosity graded lattice structure for additively manufactured biomaterials. Materials & Design 121: 383–392.

Gardan, J. (2016). Additive manufacturing technologies: state of the art and trends. International Journal of Production Research 54(10): 3118–3132.

Guo, N., & Leu, M.C. (2013). Additive manufacturing: technology, applications and research needs. Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering 8(3): 215–243.

Hazeli, K., Babamiri, B.B., Indeck, J., Minor, A., & Askari, H. (2019). Microstructure-topology relationship effects on the quasi-static and dynamic behavior of additively manufactured lattice structures. Materials & Design 176: 107826.

Jin, N., Wang, F., Wang, Y., Zhang, B., Cheng, H., & Zhang, H. (2019). Failure and energy absorption characteristics of four lattice structures under dynamic loading. Materials & Design 169: 107655.

Jin, X., Li, G.X., & Zhang, M. (2018). Optimal design of three-dimensional non-uniform nylon lattice structures for selective laser sintering manufacturing. Advances in Mechanical Engineering 10(7): 1687814018790833.

Kamal Mand Rizza, G. (2019). Design for metal additive manufacturing for aerospace applications. In: Additive manufacturing for the aerospace industry. Elsevier, pp. 67–86.

Kooistra, G.W., Deshpande, V.S, & Wadley, H.N.G., (2004). Compressive behavior of age hardenable tetrahedral lattice truss structures made from aluminium. Acta Materialia 52(14): 4229–4237.

Kumar, L.J., & Nair, C.G.K. (2017). Current trends of additive manufacturing in the aerospace industry. In: Advances in 3D printing & additive manufacturing technologies. Springer, pp. 39–54.

Kumar, S., & Kruth, J.P. (2010). Composites by rapid prototyping technology. Materials & Design 31(2): 850–856.

Lei, H., Li, C., Meng, J., Zhou, H., Liu, Y., Zhang, X., Wang, P., & Fang, D. (2019). Evaluation of compressive properties of slm-fabricated multi-layer lattice structures by experimental test and _-ct-based finite element analysis. Materials & Design 169: 107685.

Liu, R., Wang, Z., Sparks, T., Liou, F., & Newkirk, J. (2017). Aerospace applications of laser additive manufacturing. In: Laser additive manufacturing. Elsevier, pp. 351–371.

Liu, T., Deng, Z.C., & Lu, T.J. (2006). Design optimization of truss-cored sandwiches with homogenization. International Journal of Solids and Structures 43(25-26): 7891–7918.

Maskery, I., Aremu, A.O., Parry, L., Wildman, R.D., Tuck, C.J., & Ashcroft, I.A. (2018). Effective design and simulation of surface-based lattice structures featuring volume fraction and cell type grading. Materials & Design 155: 220–232.

Najmon, J.C., Raeisi, S., & Tovar, A. (2019). Review of additive manufacturing technologies and applications in the aerospace industry. Additive manufacturing for the aerospace industry : 7–31.

Queheillalt, D.T., & Wadley, H.N.G. (2005a). Cellular metal lattices with hollow trusses. Acta Materialia 53(2): 303–313.

Queheillalt, D.T., & Wadley, H.N.G. (2005b). Pyramidal lattice truss structures with hollow trusses. Materials Science and Engineering: A 397(1-2): 132–137.

Rajaguru, K., Karthikeyan, T., & Vijayan, V. (2020). Additive manufacturing–state of art. Materials today: proceedings 21: 628–633.

Rawal, S., Brantley, J., & Karabudak, N. (2013). Additive manufacturing of ti-6al-4v alloy components for spacecraft applications. In: 2013 6th international conference on recent advances in space technologies (RAST). IEEE, pp. 5–11.

Shapiro, A.A., Borgonia, J.P., Chen, Q.N., Dillon, R.P., McEnerney, B., Polit-Casillas, R., & Soloway, L. (2016). Additive manufacturing for aerospace flight applications. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets : 952–959.

Shen, Y., McKown, S., Tsopanos, S., Sutcliffe, C.J., Mines, R.A.W., & Cantwell, W.J. (2010). The mechanical properties of sandwich structures based on metal lattice architectures. Journal of Sandwich Structures & Materials 12(2): 159–180.

Uriondo, A., Esperon-Miguez, M., & Perinpanayagam, S. (2015). The present and future of additive manufacturing in the aerospace sector: A review of important aspects. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering 229(11):


Vayre, B., Vignat, F., & Villeneuve, F. (2012). Metallic additive manufacturing: state-of-the-art review and prospects. Mechanics & Industry 13(2): 89–96.

Wallach, J.C., & Gibson, L.J. (2001). Mechanical behavior of a three-dimensional truss material. International Journal of Solids and Structures 38(40-41): 7181–7196.

Wang, J., Evans, A.G., Dharmasena, K., & Wadley, H.N.G. (2003). On the performance of truss panels with kagome cores. International Journal of Solids and Structures 40(25): 6981–6988.

Xiao, Z., Yang, Y., Xiao, R., Bai, Y., Song, C., & Wang, D. (2018). Evaluation of topology-optimized lattice structures manufactured via selective laser melting. Materials & Design 143: 27–37.

Zok, F.W., Waltner, S.A., Wei, Z., Rathbun, H.J., McMeeking, R.M., & Evans, A.G. (2004). A protocol for characterizing the structural performance of metallic sandwich panels: application to pyramidal truss cores. International Journal of Solids and Structures 41(22-23): 6249–6271.



How to Cite

Alaimo, A. ., Marino, F. ., & Valvano, S. (2021). BCC lattice cell structural characterization. Reports in Mechanical Engineering, 2(1), 77–85. https://doi.org/10.31181/rme200102077v